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Showed video of Indiana and slideshow of other failures. If you are of a delicate disposition,do not watch this.

You need to see the images with this of the continuous slides of topics discussed.

The UK events business is a vibrant, expanding part of the UK economy. Promoting organisations such as Live Nation have a turnover in excess of 2 billion pounds and attract more than half a million people per year. Television, sporting events and religious events all take place in venues that use temporary structures. These temporary structures are becoming ever larger to accommodate larger audiences with a corresponding greater consequence of failure. The collapse of a temporary structure during installation or use involves a high risk of serious injuries, deaths and substantial property loss. Clearly the design of such structures is a critical function.
In this intensive two-day seminar/workshop, you will learn about the essential elements of design, construction, and installation of temporary structures. In particular, the seminar will focus on manufacturing techniques, ground anchors, rigging, lift motors and gearing, and the importance of erection in varying wind and ground conditions, as they affect the installation and inspection of such structures.

Discussion will also take place on the load bearing capabilities of temporary structures and in particular lateral stability of large suspended loads.

You will be shown the failures that can occur when proper design is not done, or when field modifications to designs are introduced without a full understanding of their implications. This includes unlawful and reckless removal of side guys and structural bracing on tents and stages. Current techniques employed in the inspection of temporary structures are also covered.

To enhance participants' skills in the ground conditions, retaining anchors, structural components and rigging on projects, as well as the pertaining legal and regulatory issues.

Based on
Why do temporary structures fail
Design errors v erection errors

Show that the UK events industry has a mature approach to inspection of temporary structures.

" Experience is the hardest kind of teacher. It gives you the test first, and the lesson afterward. "

I have often said that a crew chief or tentmaster becomes proficient when they stop worrying about how to hold a structure up and start to worry about holding it down.

I apologise to any engineers in the room for such a simple demonstration as I am about to make. Let us make a little experiment. Take a sheet of A4 paper which you will find under your seat and hold by the narrow edge in front of you like I am doing. It will sag and collapse as the extreme thin-ness of the paper (this is known in engineering as slenderness ratio or length to thickness or member size) and the lack of stiffness is not sufficient to keep it in place. If you now crease the paper by folding it length-ways to an angle of 90 degrees, it is possible to hold the paper up using the shape to control the weight of the paper.

This very simple and not quite accurate experiment, which shows that it is possible to use the shape of a surface with minimal thickness and little if no compressive ability, to exhibit a performance not possible with the flat sheet. When we design structural fabric membranes we use similar principles to enhance the performance of the structure. Using the "strength through shape principle", curved forms such as membranes and domes are stronger, more efficient, and more economical than equivalent rectilinear structures.

The double curvature of the surface provides structural stability. Upward curvature accepts downward loads such as wind, downward curvature accepts upward loads such as suction. Generally, the more curvature the surface has, the more it can accept loads. Large deformation or movement is resisted by prestressing the membrane to a level that is not countered by external forces.

For many engineering reasons it is preferable in the modern context to use this principle wherever possible when designing structures. This organic architecture can fascinate and inspire, and reflect the harmony of natural forms such a sand dunes or breaking waves.

Now, using the same piece of folded paper, stand it on its end and lay another sheet on top, it will balance and normally wont collapse. Finally, hold the paper in both hands in landscape, and grip ping the paper, give a tug sideways. It will take quite a bit of force without damage. Now holding your hands close together, tear one edge.

You have now learned three basic principles.

That thin materials can perform superbly IF USED IN THE CORRECT CONFIGURATION.

That slender, thin walled members can be used IF INSPECTED AND MAINTAINED CORRECTLY.

That tension fabric is a good structural material IF EDGE STIFFENING AND POINT LOAD DETAILS ARE ADEQUATE.

Taken from 'The Book Of Tents' by Rudi Enos.

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